Functionally graded graphene transient electronics


Project ID:  D2018-22



It is estimated that electronics account for 42 million tons of waste per year worldwide. As a result, electronic manufacturers have become interested in transient electronics. They contain environmentally benign components that can be degraded over time in a natural environment. Transient electronics can be used to better control life-cycle management and reduce the risk of electronic waste to the environment. They are defined by their ability to dissolve into non-toxic products and current methods use semi-conductor grade monocrystalline silicon and magnesium/magnesium oxide. However, production of these materials require multiple steps and expensive inputs.


Invention Description

Researchers at the University of Toledo have developed a single-step method to produce functionally graded graphene films which can be dissolved in water within 7 minutes. On a single film, one side is electrically conductive rGO and the opposite side is insulating GO. The hybrid material is formed in a single step and can easily incorporate an electrical circuit of any pattern. In addition to its environmentally friendly composition, scalable chemical synthesis, and ability to disperse in water, the low cost of graphite makes this film an ideal candidate for commercialization.



•       Electronically functioning thin films and sensors

•       Transient or compostable electronics  

    • Compostable consumer packaging
    • Electronic packaging (RFID)
    • Hardware security and military devices
    • Soft muscle actuators, soft robotics



  • Fast, one-step process
  • Mechanically robust films, freestanding
  • Average sheet resistance is as low as 9.0 Ω/square.
  • GO is hydrophilic, can hydrate and suspend in water
  • Film is hygromorphic
  • All carbon-carbon neutral materials
  • Environmentally friendly manufacturing and materials


IP Status:       US 2019/0233292 A1


Publication:       Facile fabrication of functionally graded all graphene based free standing films with tunable compositions and their applications. R. Sheikh, O. Bhatkar, D. Smith, R. Rizvi.

              Self-assembled functionally graded graphene films with tunable compositions and their applications. S. Rasel, O. Bhatkar, D. Smith, M. Kowal, M. Anderson, R. Kaner, R. Rizvi. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2019, 11, 26, 23463-23473




Patent Information:
For Information, Contact:
Katherine Pollard
Licensing Associate
The University of Toledo
Syed Reza Rizvi
Sheikh Rasel
Omkar Bhatkar
David Young
Graphene oxide